Monday, August 24, 2020
Step by step instructions to Write a College Essay on Yourself Step by step instructions to Write a College Essay on Yourself Composing a school article on yourself is what could be compared to composing an individual articulation. You compose an individual explanation for various purposes, for example, when you are making an application for a grant, entry level position, or business. This implies you need to assess the setting inside which you are composing your school exposition. As an undergrad, you have a great deal of relevant data about yourself that you can remember for your school exposition. In any case, an unreasonably longwinded article exhausts the peruser. You don't need the peruser to push your exposition aside on grounds of it being pointlessly extensive. This is the reason you ought to enough comprehend the setting of your article, and breaking point the degree to suit the target. All things considered, composing a school article on yourself must start by a distinguishing proof of your own vocation objective. As a general rule, numerous undergrads don't distinguish a brief vocation objective until they are in their last scholastic year. This is okay, if you can draft a target as and when required. A feasible proposal to follow when composing a school exposition on yourself is to be familiar with the target of the association or gathering to which you are composing the article. To the best degree conceivable, you ought to adjust your own goal to the crucial your possible manager or support. In any case, this must not be an eliminated and-glue position, in which you duplicate statement of purpose. The target should start things out in your paper, and ought to be featured either in intense or in square letters. In the wake of expressing the goal, you ought to outfit the peruser with a precise foundation of your instruction. This should start with the latest instructive accomplishment. In the event that you are still in school, you ought to demonstrate that you are presently in a specific scholarly year, seeking after a given course in a specific foundation. Make sure to express the year you joined school. After this, you ought to show any short courses you sought after subsequent to finishing secondary school. The following activity when composing a school article on yourself is to list any extracurricular exercises that you participate in, or have occupied with previously. Attempt however much as could reasonably be expected to oppose the allurement of including exercises that are of little substance to your possible support or business. A valuable tip to guarantee this is to focus more on exercises that advantage the network and help in expertise obtaining and fabricating. In the event th at you routinely partake in willful exercises, the better for you since odds of your paper being viewed as a triumphant one are expanded. Furthermore, present a short rundown of somewhere in the range of three and five side interests that don't depict you as an individual who adores so much fun. It isn't awful to have a great time, however recollect you have to intrigue the peruser that you are an engaged individual. As an expression of alert, keep your own exposition as honest as could reasonably be expected. Your educator knows a great deal about you, so abstain from lying. It is safe to say that you are searching for the best spot to purchase a school exposition on the web? Why not to attempt !?
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Of mice and men is the account of two men George Milton and Lennie Small who are two individuals who move all around looking for work. This is with the goal that one day they can bear to purchase a little homestead some place where they can live alone and be there own supervisors. George takes care of Lennie in light of the fact that Lennie is intellectually moderate and he has taken care of him since LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s auntie kicked the bucket, on the grounds that Lennie is slow-witted, he will in general push George and himself into difficulty on account of moronic easily overlooked details. They where on the run and they found a farm in the Salinas valley California where they could fill in as farm hands. Law breakers, the dark stable buck, was a glad unapproachable man who stayed away from others and requested that they keep their own separation as well. This was on the grounds that he was dark and at the time this novel was composed, there was a great deal of bigot separation towards individuals with dark skin, thus in the event that he mixed with the others they would simply make a joke of him by utilizing mockery and insults. Criminals was clearly an extremely astute individual since he controlled his internal outrage towards the others on the farm yet he was additionally a pleased and unpleasant man. Pleased in light of the fact that he never let anybody perceive how he genuinely felt and the criticism and ridiculing and severe in light of the manner in which he is dealt with and he gives the hurt inclination he needs to others he imagines that there will be no recriminations from. He believes he is separated in light of the fact that he is the main dark man on the farm and one o f the not very many dark individuals in the whole region. Evildoers is dealt with severely because of the bigotry in both the farm and society all in all. When this story was composed, the world was a bigot spot and anybody with an alternate hued skin other than white was dealt with in an unexpected way. He was known as a nigger but then he was conceived in America so truth be told, he was a genuine American and not a nigger, however because of him being dark, he was dealt with in an unexpected way. He was given all the occupations that a white man might want to consider underneath him, for example clearing out the corrals. Despite the fact that the laborers on the farm didn't embark to affront him intentionally, the utilization of the term Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢ signs to individuals that dark men like Crooks were corrupted both verbally and genuinely by individuals with white skin. Convicts was straightforwardly alluded to as a Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢, which intensifies the easygoing bigotry that was aimed at him by the others. Law breakers menaces Lennie on the grounds that he has been tormented and harassed constantly he has had the option to comprehend the realities of racial partiality. He is then allowed to menace Lennie. To get LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration he utilizes a repressed and persuading voice. At the point when he gets the influence he needs he at that point goes to tormenting and you can see his Ã¢â¬Å"face lit with joy in his tortureÃ¢â¬ . He delighted in the anguish and tribulation he put on Lennie in light of the fact that he is getting a charge out of tormenting as opposed to being harassed himself. He additionally loves his new level as he can just do this to Lennie in light of the fact that he isn't a danger and it is perhaps the main time he can recover his own in some little manner state of structure. CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ character assists with augmenting the subject of forlornness in the novel since all the men on the farm would have been glad and harsh men in someway in view of the work they had to do. Moreover, the manner in which it says that it is uncommon for individuals to go around in twos I feel that they were utilized to individuals keeping them selves to them in light of the fact that at the time it was composed it was the incredible despondency thus individuals were tragic and tended not to speak with others. Evildoers is given the littlest most forsaken room on the farm he is made to avoid the bunkhouse where the remainder of the laborers work. His room isn't just his room it is kind of a gear store a spot where hardware gets fixed. He is the likewise the main dark individual on the farm and potentially the main dark individual for a significant distance, which implies that he has nobody of his own race to unite with. The other thing that isn't his ally is that with him being dark nobody would trust him if anything turned out badly a case of this is when Curleys spouse goes into CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ room and hooligans advise her to leave she answers with that she considers him a nigger ands that she could get him lynched (hanged) calm effectively, suggesting that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like him and that she could do it in the event that she was pushed. The language used to depict Crooks gives him an absence of acknowledgment which help the writer to cause the peruser of the novel to feel sorry for Crooks and that they would simply need to support him. John Steinbeck utilizes this to show his absence of personality and in this manner making him a pariah to the remainder of the individuals on the farm who have a full unequivocal portrayal of the manner in which they look. The absence of portrayal of law breakers causes us to feel thoughtful towards him Steinbeck additionally utilizes like a miserable moderate good old type of writing to cause you to feel like he is desolate and is thoughtful towards him. Law breakers is stopped a significant character in the novel it enables the essayist to pass on the forlornness and isolation there more likely than not been being a specialist on a ruined farm. Criminals is likewise the main individual in the novel who can participate in one of the books fundamental topics (segregation). It is additionally a decent method of letting you see what life resembled and the way individuals strived to make their long lasting blessing from heaven (the American dream). Sooner or later Crooks starts to trust Lennie and they become companions, which is another (fellowship).
Friday, July 24, 2020
Finals, Oh Finals! When the semester winds down, we all know students dread final exams the most. They are long, hard to study for, and require mental stamina that one has not exhibited throughout the whole season of school. However, there are things a student at the University of Illinois can do to make this time of the year as tolerable as possible. Courtesy of QuotesGram First, a student can use a method I call trickle studying. That is the act of reviewing small topics each day in the week or so before final exams. An example would be reading notes on chapters 1-3 in a 20-chapter class in one day a week before the final and keep doing a similar thing each day for each necessary class. Doing so allows for you to have maximum focus and allows for maximum retention of the material in that period of time, due to the small quantity. It also gives you a chance to ask questions on older units which you typically review first. This method, I noticed, helps a student to digest a mass amount of knowledge slowly and comfortably, just like a big meal. Courtesy of Anticap on WordPress Also, do not overstudy. When looking over past notes and readings, do not try to look too deeply into things. As a transfer student who had to adapt to less non-testing points in university classes, I noticed that to take these exams successfully, I had to study the material lightly but covering the entire breadth of material. Most exams at the University of Illinois require only the base knowledge or depth, which will be natural to a well-prepared student to unearth during the test. Overstudying causes students to typically overthink the questions and not only burn time, but also costs points when they find out the question was of a simpler nature than expected. Therefore, study at a level which is not too intense and covers more concepts instead. Exams are typically not out to trick you and thus will not contain the few really complex problems/issues discussed in texts. Courtesy of Youtube Finally, act as though the test is not graded and is just a piece of work that needs to be completed. This is tough to do but causes a student to not worry in a testing environment. By mentally putting ones self into a place where the idea of points is gone, you are able to perform without anxiety. I have high test anxiety and typically try to act as if I am just filling out a form at home, and I also try to not do anything academic the hours before a test, so I can enter calmly or as if I almost forgot I was testing that day. A student cannot let a test mentally beat them up before it comes upon them. That is why when it comes to finals week at the University of Illinois, a student must study slowly, not think too deeply into things, and just relax, doing uplifting activities on the day an exam occurs. Courtesy of The Odyssey Jacob Class of 2018 I am a transfer student studying Engineering Physics in the College of Engineering. I started with the Illinois Engineering Pathways program through the College of DuPage. I am from Naperville, Illinois.
Friday, May 22, 2020
It is inevitable to find two completely different perspectives in life, especially in art. In regards to the play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen, this is not the exception. The previously mentioned play has caused controversy among conservative and liberal critiques as a consequence of the actions of the protagonist. Nonetheless, I strongly believe the play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is suitable for presentation to students and families at a county high school due to the learning outcomes, such as comprehending certain aspects of the past, realizing the importance of self-individualization, and being tolerant to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions before pre-judging them. In A Dollhouse, Nora, the protagonist is presented as a financially and emotionally dependent woman of Torvald Helmer, her husband. He was a successful banker, and together they had children. However, before his success, at some point Nora had to borrow money since Torvald was ill, but she never told him. When Torvald discovered what Nora did, he was infuriated at first. Eventually he composed himself, but it was too late, Nora decided to leave her home, children and husband behind to pursue her independence. Henrik Ibsen, the author of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House was an important dramatist and a defender of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. In fact, he was one of the few authors during his era that advocated for women. Additionally, Ã¢â¬Å"he is known to be the father of realism and has been a pioneer in the transformation and revolution of modern dramaÃ¢â¬ (HossainShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a ChangeÃ¢â¬ Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.Ã¢â¬ (JosÃ © N. Harris). Nora HelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Victorian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ Read MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDrama Analysis A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. Luckily NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signed
Thursday, May 7, 2020
2.0 Literature review The NTU library was used to find books, online articles, journals and research used to review previous literature on the chosen topic. The research was gathered from eight books and over thirty articles and journals. Each piece of literature found was read, studied and evaluated to ensure they could be used for the topic of this dissertation. The ones chosen to use throughout were revised again and stored in a list of references. 2.1 Introduction This chapter includes areas in accordance to the work topic from findings of current research used. The literature was used for the following headings; communication in the construction industry; communication vocabulary; Common communication barriers; overcoming communication barriers; Information and communication technology impacts and effectiveness. The breakdown of literature into headings will be done to review current literature and go further into each heading specifically. This will show a solid understanding of the highlighted discussion areas which are of relevant use from current resources. Gaps will be found within the literature that will enable research to be completed from any lack of current research done, allowing the author to research further from the aims and objectives of the dissertation. 2.1.1 Communication in the construction industry The definition of communication can be Ã¢â¬Ëthe imparting or exchange of information, ideas, or feelings.Ã¢â¬â¢ In which not only the exchange of information,Show MoreRelatedLife Sciences Grade 12 Investigative Research2049 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagessupport the flora and fauna within the ecosystem and still fulfil its main function dependent on what type of wetland it is. Aim: To determine the ecological status of the Reddam House wetland. Hypothesis: The Reddam House wetland is healthy. LITERATURE REVIEW http://whiteswetlands.blogspot.co.za/2010/04/what-makes-healthy-wetland.html The properties of what makes a wetland healthy which can be determined by observing what can be seen as normal for a wetland. Determining the health of a wetland byRead MoreThe Limitations Of Male Prison Suicide2431 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe limitations in prior research inspired the current study which aimed to review research investigating patterns of self-inflicted deaths or suicide among early stage male prisoners and long term prisoners in England and Wales, as well as considering implications for interventions. Eleven English language peer-reviewed studies (2003Ã¢â¬â2015) met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed papers highlighted particular patterns or factors that are synonymous with suicide among the targeted population. PreviousRead MoreBusiness Process Re-Engineering Case Study4624 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesindustry with the application of BPR. A simulation model has been formulated to reduce any inefficiencies or bottlenecks inherent in the system under study. The scope of this research is limited to an operating theatre suite within a hospital. LITERATURE REVIEW The aggregate per capita healthcare expenditure in Singapore has risen consistently for the last three decades from about S$150 in the 1960s to S$800 in the 1997 (Tan and Chew 1997). The healthcare industry in Singapore, like its global counterpartsRead MoreServant Leadership3894 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesservant leader within any level of management and work environment. It is through the process of comparing and contrasting the intervieweesÃ¢â¬â¢ statements that servant leadership is better understood. Servant Leadership Literature Review History is consumed with pictures and historical facts that have defined the Ã¢â¬ËGreat LeadersÃ¢â¬â¢ of the human race. When one investigates the qualities that have placed men and women into the limelight as heroes who successfully lead peopleRead MoreDarden Mba Resumes16768 Words Ã |Ã 68 Pagesscholarship (among top 50 from over 10,000 candidates) Ã¯â · Received First Class Honors (top degree distinction, GPA: 3.95). Dean s list holder (among top 5%) Ã¯â · President of NTU Apex Club (premier club for computer programming enthusiasts); spearheaded initiative to extend training from top programmers to entire student population Ã¯â · Represented NTU as an exchange student at University of Strathclyde, UK; GPA: 4.0 EXPERIENCE 2007-2009 Credit Lyonnais Securities Asia (CLSA/Calyon) Singapore Equity ResearchRead MoreConsumer Lifestyle in Singapore35714 Words Ã |Ã 143 Pagesforce,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã says Ã Credit Ã SuisseÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã economist Ã Mr Ã WanÃ¢â¬ . According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), a programme that resulted declining reliance on foreign workers should strengthen Ã SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã economy Ã in Ã the Ã longer Ã term. Ã In Ã a Ã recent Ã review, Ã the Ã IMF Ã said Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Slower Ã foreign Ã worker Ã inflows Ã will Ã boost Ã real Ã wages Ã and, Ã if Ã complemented with well?targeted incentives for technology and skills upgrading, should with time support productivity growthÃ¢â¬ . Ã On Ã the Ã other Ã hand, Ã the Ã IMF
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(77) " ratio is more indicative of thequality of credit decisions made by bankers\." Genesis The banking sector has been undergoing a complex, but comprehensive phase ofÃ restructuring since 1991, with a view to make it sound, efficient, and at the same time it isforging its links firmly with the real sector for promotion of savings, investment andÃ growth. Although a complete turnaround in banking sector performance is not expected till thecompletion of reforms, signs of improvement are visible in some indicators under theCAMELS framework. Under this bank is required to enhance capital adequacy, strengthenasset quality, improve management, increase earnings and reduce sensitivity to variousfinancial risks. We will write a custom essay sample on Project on Comparison of Public and Private Sector Banking or any similar topic only for you Order Now The almost simultaneous nature of these developments makes it difficult todisentangle the positive impact of reform measures. In 1994, the RBI established the Board of Financial Supervision, which operates as a unit ofÃ the RBI. The entire supervisory mechanism was realigned to suit the changing needs of astrong and stable financial system. The supervisory jurisdiction of the BFS was slowlyextended to the entire financial system barring the capital market institutions and theinsurance sector. Its mandate is to strengthen supervision of the financial system byintegrating oversight of the activities of financial services firms. The BFS has alsoestablished a sub-committee to routinely examine auditing practices, quality, and coverage. In 1995, RBI had set up a working group under the chairmanship of Shri S. Padmanabhan toreview the banking supervision system. The Committee gave certain recommendations andÃ based on such suggestions a rating system for domestic and foreign banks based on theinternational CAMELS model combining financial management and sensitivity to marketrisks element was introduced for the inspection cycle commencing from July 1998. Itrecommended that the banks should be rated on a five point scale (A to E) based on the linesof international CAMELS rating model. CAMELS rating model measures the relativesoundness of a bank. bj ectives of the Pro j ect Study ?To study the Financial Performance of the b anks.? y To study the strength of using CAMELS framework as a tool of Performanceevaluation for Commercial banks y To describe the CAMELS model of ranking banking institutions, so as to analyzeÃ theÃ performance of various bank. R ationale In the recent years the financial system especially the banks have undergone numerouschanges in the form of reforms, regulations norms. The attempt here is to see how variousratios have been used and interpreted to reveal a bankÃ ¶s performance and how this particularÃ model encompasses a wide range of parameters making it a widely used and accepted modelin todayÃ ¶s scenario. Data Collection y Primary Data : Primary data was collectedÃ from the BanksÃ ¶ balance sheets and profitand loss statements. y Secondary Data : Secondary data on the subject was collected from ICFAI journals,BanksÃ ¶ annual reports and RBIM ethodology As long as the methodology is concerned, we have made use of a framework calledCAMELS FRAMEWORK. There are so many models of evaluating the performance of theÃ banks, but I have chosen the CAMELS Model for this purpose. I have gone through severalÃ books, journals and websites and found it the best model because it measures theÃ performance of the banks from each parameter i. e. Capital, Assets, Management, Earnings,Liquidity and Sensitivity toÃ Market risks. CAMELS evaluate banks onÃ the following six parameters : -? Capital Adequacy (CRAR)? Asset Quality (GNPA)? Management Soundness (MGNT)? Earnings profitability (ROA)? Liquidity (LQD)? Sensitivity to MarketÃ Risks (? ) websitDuring an on-site bank exam, supervisors gather private information, such as details onÃ problem loans, with which to evaluate a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s financial condition and to monitor itscompliance with laws and regulatory policies. A key product of such an exam is asupervisory rating of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s overall condition, commonly referred to as a CAMELSrating. The acronym Ã¢â¬Å"CAMELÃ¢â¬ refers to the five components of a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s condition that areassessed : Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management, Earnings, and Liquidity. A sixthcomponent, a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s Sensitivity to market risk was added in 1997; hence the acronym waschanged to CAMELSAMELS is basically a ratio-based model for evaluating the performance of banks. Variousratios forming this model are explained below : Capital base of financial institutions facilitates depositors in forming their risk perceptionabout the institutions. Also, it is the key parameter for financial managers to maintainadequate levels of capitalization. The most widely used indicator of capital adequacy iscapital to risk-weighted assets ratio (CRWA). According to Bank Supervision RegulationCommittee (The Basle Committee) of Bank for International Settlements, a minimum 9Ã percent CRWA is required. Thus, it is useful to track capital-adequacy ratios that take intoaccount the most important financial risks? foreign exchange, credit, and interest raterisks? by assigning risk weightings to the institutionÃ ¶s assets. A sound capital basestrengthens confidence of depositors. This ratio is used to protect depositors and promote thestability and efficiency of financial systems around the world. Capital R isk Adequacy R atio: CRAR is a ratio of Capital Fund to Risk Weighted Assets. Reserve Bank of India prescribesBanks to maintain a minimum Capital to risk-weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR) of 9 % withregard to credit risk, market risk and operational risk on an ongoing basis, as against 8 %Ã prescribed in Basel documents. Component-wise Capital Adequacy of ScheduledCommercial Banks (As at end- M arch) Capital to R isk W eighted Assets R atio- Bank Group-wise Total capital includes tier-I capital and Tier-II capital. Tier-I capital includes paid up equitycapital, free reserves, intangible assets etc. Tier-II capital includes long term unsecuredloans, loss reserves, hybrid debt capital instruments etc. The higher the CRAR, the strongerÃ is considered a bank, asÃ it ensures high safety against bankruptcy. Asset quality determines the robustness of financial institutions against loss of value in theassets. The deteriorating value of assets, being prime source of banking problems, directlyÃ pour into other areas, as losses are eventually written off against capital, which ultimatelyÃ jeopardizes the earning capacity of the institution. With this backdrop, the asset quality isgauged n relation to the level and severity of non-performing assets, adequacy ofÃ Ã provisions, recoveries, distribution of assets etc. Popular indicators include non-performingloans to advances, loan default to total advances, and recoveries to loan default ratios. One of the indicators for asset quality is the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans(GNPA). The gross non-performing loans to gro ss advances ratio is more indicative of thequality of credit decisions made by bankers. You read "Project on Comparison of Public and Private Sector Banking" in category "Essay examples" Higher GNPA is indicative of poor creditdecision-making. N PA: N on-Performing Assets: Advances are classified into performing and non-performing advances (NPAs) as per RBIguidelines. NPAs are further classified into sub-standard, doubtful and loss assets based onthe criteria stipulated by RBI. An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performingwhen it ceases toÃ generate income for the Bank. An NPA is a loan or an advance where : 1. Interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for a period of more than 90days in respect of a term loan;2. The account remains Ã¢â¬Å"out-of-orderÃ¢â¬ in respect of an Overdraft or Cash Credit(OD/CC);3. The bill remains overdue forÃ a period of more thanÃ 90 days in case of bills purchasedand discounted;4. A loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as an NPA if the installmentsof principal or interest thereon remain overdueÃ for two crop seasons; and5. A loan granted for long duration crops will be treated as an NPA if the installmentsof principal or interest thereon remain overdueÃ for one crop season. The Bank classifies an account as an NPA only if the interest imposed during any quarter isnot fully repaid within 90 days from the end of the relevant quarter. This is a key to thestability of the banking sector. There should be no hesitation in stating that Indian bankshave done a remarkable job in containment of non-performing loans (NPL) considering theoverhang issues and overall difficult environment. For 2008, the net NPL ratio for the Indianscheduled commercial banks at 2. 9 per cent is ample testimony to the impressive effortsÃ being made by our banking system. In fact, recovery management is also linked to theÃ banksÃ ¶ interest margins. The cost and recovery management supported by enabling legalframework hold the key to future health and competitiveness of the Indian banks. No doubt,improving recovery-management in India is an area requiring expeditious and effectiveactions in legal, institutional and judicial processes. Management of financial institution is generally evaluated in terms of capital adequacy,asset quality, earnings and profitability, liquidity and risk sensitivity ratings. In addition,Ã performance evaluation includes compliance with set norms, ability to plan and react tochanging circumstances, technical competence, leadership and administrative ability. Ineffect, management rating is just an amalgam of performance in the above-mentioned areas. Sound management is one of the most important factors behind financial institutionsÃ ¶Ã performance. Indicators of quality of management, however, are primarily applicable toindividual institutions, and cannot be easily aggregated across the sector. Furthermore, giventhe qualitative nature of management, it is difficult to judge its soundness just by looking atfinancial accounts of the banks. Nevertheless, total expenditure to total income and operating expense to total expense helpsin gauging the management quality of the banking institutions. Sound management is key toÃ bank performance but is difficult to measure. It is primarily a qualitative factor applicable toindividual institutions. Several indicators, however, can jointly serve? as, for instance,efficiency measures do-as an indicator of managementÃ soundness. The ratio of non-interest expenditures to total assets (MGNT) can be one of the measures toassess the working of the management. . This variable, which includes a variety of expenses,such as payroll, workers compensation and training investment, reflects the managementÃ policy stance. E fficiency R atios demonstrate how efficiently the company uses its assets and howefficiently the company manages its operations. Indicates the relationship between assets and revenue. ? Companies with low profit margins tend to have high asset turnover, those with highÃ profit margins have low asset turnover Ã¢â¬â it indicates pricing strategy. ? This ratio is more useful for growth companies to check if in fact they are growingrevenue in proportion to sales. Asset Turnover Analysis: This ratio is useful to determine the amount of sales that are generated from each rupee ofÃ assets. As noted above, companies with low profit margins tend to have high asset turnover,those with high profit margins have low asset turnover. Earnings and profitability, the prime source of increase in capital base, is examined withregards to interest rate policies and adequacy of provisioning. In addition, it also helps tosupport present and future operations of the institutions. The single best indicator used togauge earning is the Return on Assets (ROA), which is net income after taxes to total assetratio. Strong earnings and profitability profile of banks reflects the ability to support present andfuture operations. More specifically, this determines the capacity toÃ absorb losses, finance itsexpansion, pay dividends to its shareholders, and build up an adequate level of capital. Being front line of defense against erosion of capital base from losses, the need for highearnings and profitability can hardly be overemphasized. Although different indicators areused to serve the purpose, the best and most widely used indicator is Return on Assets(ROA). However, for in-depth analysis, another indicator Net Interest Margins (NIM) is alsoused. Chronically unprofitable financial institutions risk insolvency. Compared with mostother indicators, trends in profitability can be more difficult to interpret-for instance,unusually high profitability can reflect excessive risk taking. R O A- R eturn on Assets: An indicator of howÃ profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives anÃ idea asto how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings. Calculated bydividing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual earnings by its total assets, ROA is displayed as a percentage. Sometimes this is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"return on investmentÃ¢â¬ . ROA tells what earnings were generated from invested capital (assets). ROA for publiccompanies can vary substantially and will be highly dependent on the industry. This is why when using ROA as a comparative measure, it is best to compare it against a companyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ previous ROA numbers or theÃ ROA of a similar company. The assets of the company are comprised of both debt and equity. Both of these types ofÃ financing are used to fund the operations of the company. The ROA figure gives investorsan idea of how effectively the company is converting the money it has to invest into netincome. The higher the ROA number, the better, because the company is earning moremoney on less investment. For example, if one company has a net income of $1 million andtotal assets of $5 million, its ROA is 20%; however, if another company earns the sameamount but has total assets of $10 million, it has an ROA of 10%. Based on this example,the first company is better at converting its investment into profit. When you really thinkÃ about it, managementÃ¢â¬â¢s most important job is to make wise choices in allocating itsresources. Anybody can make a profit by throwing a ton of money at a problem, but veryfew managers excel atÃ making large profits with little investment. R eturn on Assets and R eturn on E quity of SCBs- Bank Group-wise An adequate liquidity position refers to a situation, where institution can obtain sufficientfunds, either by increasing liabilities or by converting its assets quickly at a reasonable cost. It is, therefore, generally assessed in terms of overall assets and liability management, asmismatching gives rise to liquidity risk. Efficient fund management refers to a situationwhere a spread between rate sensitive assets (RSA) and rate sensitive liabilities (RSL) ismaintained. The most commonly used tool to evaluate interest rate exposure is the GapÃ between RSA and RSL,Ã while liquidity is gauged by liquid to total asset ratio. Initially solvent financial institutions may be driven toward closure by poor management ofÃ short-term liquidity. Indicators should cover funding sources and capture large maturitymismatches. The term liquidity is used in various ways, all relating to availability of, accessto, or convertibility into cash. ? An institution is said to have liquidity if it can easily meet its needs for cash eitherÃ Ã because it has cash onÃ hand or can otherwise raise or borrow cash. ? A market is said to be liquid if the instruments it trades can easily be bought or soldin quantity with little impact on market prices. ? An asset is said to be liquid if theÃ market for that asset is liquid. The common theme in all three contexts is cash. A corporation is liquid if it has ready accessto cash. A market is liquid if participants can easily convert positions into cash? orÃ conversely. An asset is liquid if it can easily be converted to cash. The liquidity of aninstitution depends on : y the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s short-term need for cash; y cash on hand; y available lines of credit; y the liquidity of theÃ institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s assets; y The institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation in the marketplace? how willing will counterparty is totransact trades with or lend to theÃ institution? The liquidity of a market is often measured as the size of its bid-ask spread, but this is animperfect metric at best. More generally, Kyle (1985) identifies three components of marketliquidity : ? Tightness is the bid-ask spread; ? Depth is the volume of transactions necessary toÃ move prices; ? Resiliency is the speed with which prices return to equilibrium following a largetrade. Examples of assets that tend to be liquid include foreign exchange; stocks traded in theStock Exchange or recently issued Treasury bonds. Assets that are often illiquid includelimited partnerships, thinly traded bonds or real estate. Cash maintained by the banks and balances with central bank, to total asset ratio (LQD) isan indicator of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity. In general, banks with a larger volume of liquid assets areÃ perceived safe, since these assets would allowÃ banks to meet unexpectedÃ withdrawals. Credit deposit ratio is a tool used to study the liquidity position of the bank. It is calculatedÃ by dividing the cash held in different forms by total deposit. A high ratio shows that there ismore amounts of liquid cash with the bank to met its clients cash withdrawals. It refers to the risk that changesÃ in market conditions could adversely impact earnings and/orÃ capital. Market Risk encompasses exposures associated with changes in interest rates, foreignexchange rates, commodity prices, equity prices, etc. While all of these items are important,the primary risk in most banks is interest rate risk (IRR), which will be the focus of thismodule. The diversified nature of bank operations makes them vulnerable to various kindsof financial risks. Sensitivity analysis reflects institutionÃ ¶s exposure to interest rate risk,foreign exchange volatility and equity price risks (these risks are summed in market risk). Risk sensitivity is mostly evaluated in terms of managementÃ ¶s ability to monitor and controlmarket risk. Banks are increasingly involved in diversified operations, all of which are subject to marketrisk, particularly in the setting of interest rates and the carrying out of foreign exchangetransactions. In countries that allow banks to make trades in stock markets or commodityexchanges, there is also aÃ need to monitor indicators of equity and commodity price risk. Sensitivity to Market Risk is a recent addition to the ratings parameters and reflects thedegree to which changes in interest rates, exchange rates, commodity prices and equityÃ prices can affect earnings andÃ hence the bankÃ ¶s capital. ItÃ is measured by Beta (? . 1. ? ;1, depicts that changes in the firm are less than the changes in the market. LessSensitive2. ? =1, depicts that there is equivalent change in the firm with the changes in themarket Equally Sensitive. 3. ? ;1, depicts that changes in the firm are more than the changes in the market. Highly Sensitive. The Bank The word bank means an organization where people and business can invest or borrowmoney; change it to foreign currency etc. According to Halsbury ? A Banker is an individual,Partnership or Corporation whose sole pre-dominant business is banking, that is the receiptof money on current or deposit ccount, and the payment of cheque drawn and the collectionof cheque paid in by a customer. Ã ¶Ã ¶ The O rigin and Use of Banks The Word Ã µBankÃ ¶ is derived from the Italian word Ã µBankoÃ ¶ signifying a bench, which waserected in the market-place, where it was customary to exchange money. The Lombard Jewswere the first to practice this exchange business, the first bench having been established inItaly A. D. 808. Some authorities assert that the Lombard merchants commenced theÃ business of money-dealing, employing bills of exchange as remittances, about the beginningof the thirteenth century. About the middle of the twelfth century it became evident, as the advantage of coinedmoney was gradually acknowledged, that there must be some controlling power, somecorporation which would undertake to keep the coins that were to bear the royal stamp up toa certain standard of value; as, independently of the Ã µsweatingÃ ¶ which invention may place tothe credit of the ingenuity of the Lombard merchants- all coins will, by wear or abrasion,Ã become thinner, and consequently less valuable; and it is of the last importance, not only forÃ the credit of a country, but for the easier regulation of commercial transactions, that themetallic currency be kept as nearly as possible up to the legal standard. Much unnecessarytrouble and annoyance has been caused formerly by negligence in this respect. The gradualmerging of the business of a goldsmith into a bank appears to have been the way in whichÃ banking, as we now understand the term, was introduced into England; and it was not unti llong after the establishment of banks in other countries-for state purposes, the regulation ofÃ the coinage, etc. that any large or similar institution was introduced into England. It is onlywithin the last twenty years that printed cheques haveÃ been in use in that establishment. Firstcommercial bank was Bank of Venice which was established in 1157Ã in Italy. Banking sector, the world over, is known for the adoption of multidimensional strategiesfrom time to time with varying degrees of success. Banks are very important for the smoothfunctioning of financial markets as they serve as repositories of vital financial informationand can potentially alleviate the problems created by information asymmetries. From acentral bankÃ ¶s perspective, such high-quality disclosures help the early detection ofÃ Ã problems faced by banks in the market and reduce the severity of market disruptions. Consequently, the RBI as part and parcel of the financial sector deregulation, attempted toenhance the transparency of the annual reports of Indian banks by, among other things,introducing stricter income recognition and asset classification rules, enhancing the capitaladequacy norms, and by requiring a number of additional disclosures sought by investors tomake better cash flow and risk assessments. [Source : RBI Website] BAS EL Ã¢â¬â II ACC O R D Bank capital framework sponsored by the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s central banks designed to promoteuniformity, make regulatory capital more risk sensitive, and promote enhanced riskÃ management among large, internationally active banking organizations. The InternationalCapital Accord, as it is called, will be fully effective by January 2008 for banks active ininternational markets. Other banks can choose to Ã¢â¬Å"opt in,Ã¢â¬ or they can continue to follow theminimum capital guidelines in the original Basel Accord, finalized in 1988. The revisedaccord (Basel II) completely overhauls the 1988 Basel Accord and is based on threemutually supporting concepts, orÃ Ã¢â¬Å"pillars,Ã¢â¬ of capital adequacy. The first of these pillars is anexplicitly defined regulatory capital requirement, a minimum capital-to-asset ratio equal toat least 8% of risk-weighted assets. Second, bank supervisory agencies, such as theComptroller of the Currency, have authority to adjust capital levels for individual banksabove the 9% minimum when necessary. The third supporting pillar calls upon marketdiscipline to supplement reviews by banking agencies. Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, which are recommendations on banking lawsand regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. The purpose ofÃ Basel II, which was initially published in June 2004, is to create an international standardthat banking regulators can use when creating regulations about how much capital banksneed to put aside to guard against the types of financial and operational risks banks face. Advocates of Basel II believe that such an international standard can help protect theinternational financial system from the types of problems that might arise should a majorÃ Ã bank or aÃ series of banks collapse. In practice, Basel II attempts to accomplish this by settingup rigorous risk and capital management requirements designed to ensure that a bank holdscapital reserves appropriate to the risk the bank exposes itself to through its lending andinvestment practices. [Source : RBI Website] The final version aims at: 1. Ensuring that capital allocation is more risk sensitive;2. Separating operational risk from credit risk, and quantifying both;3. Attempting to align economic and regulatory capital more closely to reduce thescope for regulatory arbitrage. While the final accord has largely addressed the regulatory arbitrage issue, there are stillareas where regulatory capital requirements will diverge from the economic. Basel II has largely left unchanged the question of how to actually define bank capital,which diverges from accounting equity in important respects. The Basel I definition, asmodified up to the present, remains in place. The Accord in operation Basel II uses a Ã¢â¬Å"three pillarsÃ¢â¬ concept y inimum capital requirements (addressing risk), y supervisory review and y market discipline Ã ± to promote greater stability in the financial system. The Basel I accord dealt with only parts of each of these pillars. For example : with respectto the first Basel II pillar, only one risk, cre dit risk, was dealt with in a simple manner whilemarket risk was an afterthought; operational risk was notÃ dealt with at all. The First Pillar The first pillar deals with maintenance of regulatory capital calculated for three majorÃ components of risk that a bank faces : credit risk, operational risk and market risk. OtherÃ risks are not considered fully quantifiable at this stage. The credit risk component can be calculated in three different ways of varying degree ofÃ sophistication, namely standardized approach, Foundation IRB and Advanced IRB. IRBstands for Ã¢â¬Å"Internal Rating-Based ApproachÃ¢â¬ . For operational risk, there are three different approaches Ã¢â¬â basic indicator approach,standardized approach and advanced measurement approach. For market risk the preferredapproach is VaR (value atÃ risk). As the Basel II recommendations are phased in by the banking industry it will move fromstandardized requirements to more refined and specific requirements that have beendeveloped for each risk category by each individual bank. The upside for banks that dodevelop their own bespoke risk measurement systems is that they will be rewarded withÃ potentially lower risk capital requirements. In future there will be closer links between theconcepts of economic profit and regulatory capital. Credit Risk can be calculated by using one of three approaches : 1. Standardized Approach2. Foundation IRB (Internal Ratings Based) Approach3. Advanced IRB ApproachThe standardized approach sets out specific risk weights for certain types of credit risk. Thestandard risk weight categories are used under Basel 1 and are 0% for short termgovernment bonds, 20% for exposures to OECD Banks, 50% for residential mortgages and 100% weighting on commercial loans. A new 150% rating comes in for borrowers with poorÃ credit ratings. The minimum capital requirement (the percentage of risk weighted assets toÃ be held as capital) has remains atÃ 8%. For those Banks that decide to adopt the standardized ratings approach they will be forced torely on the ratings generated by external agencies. Certain Banks are developing the IRBapproach as a result. The Second Pillar The second pillar deals with the regulatory response to the first pillar, giving regulatorsmuch improved Ã¢â¬ËtoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ over those available to them under Basel I. It also provides aframework for dealing with all the other risks a bank may face, such as systemic risk,Ã pension risk, concentration risk, strategic risk, reputation risk, liquidity risk and legal risk,which the accord combines under the title of residual risk. It gives banks a power to reviewtheir risk managementÃ system. The Third Pillar The third pillar greatly increases the disclosures that the bank must make. This is designedto allow the market to have a better picture of the overall risk position of the bank and toallow the counterparties of the bank to price and deal appropriately. The new Basel Accordhas its foundation on three mutually reinforcing pillars that allow banks and bankÃ supervisors to evaluate properly the various risks that banks face and realign regulatorycapital more closely with underlying risks. The first pillar is compatible with the credit risk,market risk and operational risk. The regulatory capital will be focused on these three risks. The second pillar gives the bank responsibility to exercise the best ways to manage the riskÃ specific to that bank. Concurrently, it also casts responsibility on the supervisors to reviewand validate banksÃ ¶ risk measurement models. The third pillar on market discipline is usedto leverage the influence that other market players can bring. This is aimed at improving thetransparency in banks andÃ improves reporting. State Bank of India is the largest banking and financial services company in India, by almostevery parameter Ã¢â¬â revenues, profits, assets, market capitalization, etc. The bank traces itsancestry to British India, through the Imperial Bank of India, to the founding in 1806 of theBank of Calcutta, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian Subcontinent. TheGovernment of India nationalized the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with the ReserveBank of India taking a 60% stake, and renamed it the State Bank of India. In 2008, theGovernment took over theÃ stake held by the Reserve Bank of India. SBI provides a range of banking products through its vast network of branches in India andoverseas, including products aimed at NRIs. The State Bank Group, with over 16,000Ã branches, has the largest banking branch network in India. With an asset base of $260 billionand $195 billion in deposits, it is a regional banking behemoth. It has a market share amongIndian commercial banks of about 20% in deposits and advances, and SBI accounts forÃ almost one-fifth of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s loans. The total assets of the Bank increased by 9. 23% fromRs. 9,64,432. 08 crores at the end of March 2009 to Rs. 10,53,413. 3 crores as at end March2010. The BankÃ ¶s aggregate liabilities (excluding capital and reserves) rose by 8. 93% fromRs. 9,06,484. 38 crores on 31st March 2009 to Rs. 9,87,464. 53 crores on 31st March 2010. K ey performance I ndicators [Source : Annual Report, 2009-10]SBI has tried to reduce over-sta ffing by computerizing operations and Ã¢â¬Å"golden handshakeÃ¢â¬ schemes that led to a flight of its best and brightest managers. These managers took theretirement allowances and then went on to become senior managers in new private sector ICICI Bank (formerly Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India) is a majorÃ Ã banking and financial services organization in India. It is the 4th largest bank in India andthe largest private sector bank in India by market capitalization. The bank also has a networkÃ of 1,700+ branches (as on 31 March 2010) and about 4,721 ATMs in India and presence in19 countries, as well as some 24 million customers (at the end of July 2007). ICICI Bank isalso the largest issuer of credit cards in India. ICICI BankÃ¢â¬â¢s shares are listed on the stockÃ exchanges at Kolkata and Vadodara, Mumbai and the National Stock Exchange of IndiaLimited; its ADRs trade on the NewÃ York Stock Exchange (NYSE). [Source : Annual Report, 2009-10]The Bank is expanding in overseas markets and has the largest international balance sheetamong Indian banks. ICICI Bank now has wholly-owned subsidiaries, branches andrepresentatives offices in 19 countries, including an offshore unit in Mumbai. This includeswholly owned subsidiaries in Canada, Russia and the UK (the subsidiary through which theHi SAVE savings brand is operated), offshore banking units in Bahrain and Singapore, anadvisory branch in Dubai, branches in Belgium, Hong Kong and Sri Lanka, andrepresentative offices in Bangladesh, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Africa, Thailand,the United Arab Emirates and USA. Overseas, the Bank is targeting the NRI (Non- ResidentIndian) population in particular. History HDFC Bank was incorporated in the year of 1994 by Housing Development FinanceCorporation Limited (HDFC), IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s premier housing finance company. It was among thefirst companies to receive an Ã¢â¬Ëin principleÃ¢â¬â¢ approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) toset up a bank in the private sector. The Bank commenced its operations as a ScheduledCommercial Bank in January 1995 with the help of RBIÃ¢â¬â¢s liberalization policies. In a milestone transaction in the Indian banking industry, Times Bank Limited (promoted byBennett, Coleman Co. / Times Group) was merged with HDFC Bank Ltd. , in 2000. Thiswas the first merger of two private banks in India. As per the scheme of amalgamationapproved by the shareholders of both banks and the Reserve Bank of India, shareholders ofÃ Times Bank received 1Ã share of HDFC Bank for every 5. 75Ã shares of Times Bank. In 2008 HDFC Bank acquired Centurion Bank of Pun j a b aking its total branches to morethan 1,000. The amalgamated bank emerged with a strong deposit base of around Rs. 1,22,000 crore and net advances of around Rs. 89,000 crore. The balance sheet size of thecombined e ntity is over Rs. 1,63,000 crore. The amalgamation added significant value toHDFC Bank in terms of increased branch network, geographic reach, and customer base,and a bigger pool of skilled manpowerÃ Capital Adequacy [Source : Annual Report, 2009-10] The Industrial Development Bank of India Limited commonly known by its acronym IDBIis one of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading public sector banks and 4th largest Bank in overall ratings. RBIcategorized IDBI as an Ã¢â¬Å"other public sector bankÃ¢â¬ . It was established in 1964 by an Act ofÃ Parliament to provide credit and other facilities for the development of the fledgling Indianindustry. It is currently 10th largest development bank in the world in terms of reach with1210 ATMs, 720 branches and 486 centers. Some of the institutions built by IDBI are the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), theÃ National Securities Depository Services Ltd (NSDL), the Stock Holding Corporation ofÃ India (SHCIL), the Credit Analysis ; Research Ltd, the Export-Import Bank of India (EximBank), the Small Industries Development bank of India(SIDBI), the EntrepreneurshipDevelopment Institute of India, and IDBI BANK, which today is owned by the IndianGovernment, though for a brief period it was a private scheduled bank. The IndustrialDevelopment Bank of India (IDBI) was established on July 1, 1964 under an Act ofÃ Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India. In 16 February 1976,the ownership of IDBI was transferred to the Government of India and it was made theÃ principal financial institution for coordinating the activities of institutions engaged infinancing, promoting and developing industry in the country. Although Governmentshareholding in the Bank came down below 100% following IDBIÃ ¶s public issue in July1995, the former continues toÃ be the major shareholder (current shareholding : 52. 3%). During the four decades of its existence, IDBI has been instrumental not only in establishinga well-developed, diversified and efficient ndustrial and institutional structure but alsoadding a qualitative dimension to the process of industrial development in the country. IDBIhas played a pioneering role in fulfilling its mission of promoting industrial growth throughfinanci ng of medium and long-term projects, in consonance with national plans andÃ priorities. Over the years, IDBI has enlarged its basket of products and services, coveringalmost the entire spectrum of industrial activities, including manufacturing and services. IDBI provides financial assistance, both in rupee and foreign currencies, for green-fieldÃ projects as also for expansion, modernization and diversification purposes. In the wake ofÃ financial sector reforms unveiled by the government since 1992, IDBI evolved an array ofÃ fund and fee-based services with a view to providing an integrated solution to meet theentire demand of financial and corporate advisory requirements of its clients Axis Bank, formally UTI Bank, is a financial services firm that had begun operations in1994, after the Government of India allowed new private banks to be established. The BankÃ was promoted jointly by the Administrator of the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust ofÃ India (UTI-I), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), General Insurance CorporationLtd. , National Insurance Company Ltd. The New India Assurance Company, The OrientalInsurance Corporation and United India Insurance Company UTI-I holds a special positionin the Indian capital markets and has promoted many leading financial institutions in thecountry. The bank changed its name to Axis Bank in April 2007 to avoid confusion withother unrelated entities with similar name. After the Retirement of Mr. P. J. Nayak, Shikha Sharma was named as the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s managingdirector and CEO on 20 April 2009. As on the year ended March 31, 2009 the Bank had atotal income of Rs 13,745. 04 crore (US$ 2. 93 billion) and a net profit of Rs. 1,812. 93 crore(US$ 386. 15 million). On February 24, 2010, Axis Bank announced the launch of Ã¢â¬ËAXISCALL ; PAY on atomÃ¢â¬â¢, a unique mobile payments solution using Axis Bank debit cards. Axis Bank is the first bank in the country to provide a secure debit card-based paymentservice over IVR. Axis Bank is one of the Big Four Banks of India, along with ICICI Bank,State Bank of India and HDFC Bank Branch Network At the end of March 2009, the BankÃ has a very wide network of more than 835 branch offices and Extension Counters. Totalnumber of ATMs went up to 3595. The Bank has loans now (as of June 2007) account for asmuch as 70 per cent of the bankÃ ¶s total loan book of Rs 2,00,000 crore. In the case of AxisBank, retail loans have declined from 30 per cent of the total loan book of Rs 25,800 crorein June 2006 to around 23 per cent of loan book of Rs. 41,280 crore (as of June 2007). Evenover a longer period,Ã while the overall asset growth forÃ Axis Bank has been quite high and has matched that of the other banks, retail exposuresgrew at a slower pace. The bank, though, appears to have insulated such pressures. Interestmargins, while they have declined from the 3. 15 per cent seen in 2003-04, are still hoveringclose to the 3 per cent mark. Axis Bank, formally UTI Bank, is a financial services firm that had begun operations in1994, after the Government of India allowed new private banks to be established. The BankÃ was promoted jointly by the Administrator of the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust ofÃ India (UTI-I), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), General Insurance CorporationLtd. , National Insurance Company Ltd. The New India Assurance Company, The OrientalInsurance Corporation and United India Insurance Company UTI-I holds a special positionin the Indian capital markets and has promoted many leading financial institutions in thecountry. The bank changed its name to Axis Bank in April 2007 to avoid confusion withother unrelated entities with similar name. After the Retirement of Mr. P. J. Nayak, Shikha Sharma was named as the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s managingdirector and CEO on 20 April 2009. As on the year ended March 31, 2009 the Bank had atotal income of Rs 13,745. 04 crore (US$ 2. 93 billion) and a net profit of Rs. 1,812. 93 crore(US$ 386. 15 million). On February 24, 2010, Axis Bank announced the launch of Ã¢â¬ËAXISCALL PAY on atomÃ¢â¬â¢, a unique mobile payments solution using Axis Bank debit cards. Axis Bank is the first bank in the country to provide a secure debit card-based paymentservice over IVR. Axis Bank is one of the Big Four Banks of India, along with ICICI Bank,State Bank of India and HDFC Bank Branch Network At the end of March 2009, the BankÃ has a very wide network of more than 835 branch offices and Extension Counters. Totalnumber of ATMs went up to 3595. The Bank has loans now (as of June 2007) account for asmuch as 70 per cent of the bankÃ ¶s total loan book of Rs 2,00,000 crore. In the case of AxisBank, retail loans have declined from 30 per cent of the total loan book of Rs 25,800 crorein June 2006 to around 23 per cent of loan book of Rs. 41,280 crore (as of June 2007). Evenover a longer period,Ã while the overall asset growth forÃ Axis Bank has been quite high and has matched that of the other banks, retail exposuresgrew at a slower pace. The bank, though, appears to have insulated such pressures. Interestmargins, while they have declined from the 3. 15 per cent seen in 2003-04, are still hoveringclose to the 3 per cent mark. Reserve Bank of India prescribes Banks to maintain a minimum Capital to risk weightedAssets Ratio (CRAR) of 9 percent with regard to credit risk, market risk and operational riskÃ on an ongoing basis, as against 8 percent prescribed in Basel Documents. Capital adequacyratio of the ICICI Bank was well above the industry average of 13. 97% t. CAR of HDFCÃ bank is below the ratio of ICICI bank. HDFC BankÃ ¶s total Capital Adequacy stood at15. 26% as of March 31, 2010. The Bank adopted the Basel 2 framework as of March 31,2009 and the CAR computed as per Basel 2 guidelines stands higher against the regulatoryminimum of 9. 0%. HDFC CAR is gradually increased over the last 5 year and the capital adequacy ratio ofÃ Axis bank is the increasing by every 2 year. SBI has maintained its CAR around in the rangeof 11 % to 14 %. But IDBI should reconsider their business as its CAR is falling YOY (yearÃ on year). Higher the ratio the banks are in a comfortable position to absorb losses. So ICICIand HDFC are the strong one to absorb their loses. Gross N PA: Gross NPAs are the sum total of all loan assets that are classified as NPAs as per RBIguidelines as on Balance Sheet date. Gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made byÃ banks. It consists of all the non standardÃ assets like as substandard, doubtful, and loss assets. It can be calculatedÃ with the help of following ratio : SBI maintained its GNPA to 3% which is very good sign of performances as SBI is thelargest lender in INDIA. HDFCÃ ¶s GNPA is quite good as it is low with compared to ICICIand SBI but in 2008-09 GNPA rises. The reason may be economic crises. AXIS bank haslowest GNPA which shown its management ability. ICICI has the highest GNPA in bankingindustry and rising YOY (year onÃ year). N et N PA: Net NPAs are those type of NPAs in which the bank has deducted the provision regardingÃ NPAs. Net NPA shows the actual burden of banks. Since in India, bank balance sheetscontain a huge amount of NPAs and the process of recovery and write off of loans is verytime consuming, the provisions the banks have to make against the NPAs according to thecentral bank guidelines, are quite significant. That is why the difference between gross andnet NPA is quite high. It can be calculated by following : AXIS Bank has least Net NPA and ICICI has highest NNPA among group. HDFC shown itsmanagement quality as it maintained its NNPA YOY (year on year). SBI has to keep NNPAÃ below. IDBI has successful to control NNPA YOY. How to cite Project on Comparison of Public and Private Sector Banking, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Before the North Americans had contact with the Euro-Americans, the religious systems included cosmologies such as creation myths, which explained how societies had come into being. These were transmitted orally from one generation to the next. They also worshiped an all-powerful, all-knowing Creator known as the Master Spirit. There were other hosts of supernatural entities, including an evil god who dealt out disaster, suffering, and death. Also, the members of most tribes also believed in the immortality of the human soul and an afterlife. Many key Native American religious beliefs closely resembled those of Euro-American religion, both Catholic and Protestant. These cultures also had a creation myth, which was described in the book of Genesis, worshiped a Creator God, believed in a malicious deity known as Lucifer, and anticipated an afterlife. Although the indigenous Native American Religion had their similarities with Euro-American Religion, they also had their conflicts. Cultural and political interactions occurred in the US, Mexico, and Canada when the Euro-American viewed North American lands as an opportunity. They showed interest in bargaining lands for exploitation with the Native Americans but they had different beliefs in accordance to their Native American Religion. They viewed God-created lands are holy and believed that their sacred lands cannot be owned by a natural human. Worship practices given to the natural lands were a common practice in Native-American Religions. Conflicts arose when Euro-Americans attempted to seize and develop lands in North America that eventually led to a war. Influences of English Puritans in North America, Spanish Catholicism in Mexico, and French Catholicism in Canada had deviated Native-American religion dramatically. Force-teaching of the Bible to the Native Americans and observ ing practices of their religious worship practices was Euro-Americans primary interactions with Native-American religion.